San Nicolas and Santa Teresita: Historic and Folkloric Notes about some of its Barrios

Exploring forgotten stories about the barrios of San Nicolas and Santa Teresita.

Balandis: the Slanted Houses Along a Road in Cuenca/Alitagtag

Exploring this quaint area in Cuenca and Alitagtag where the houses are slanted away from the road.

Mataasnakahoy: Historical and Folkloric Trivia about some of Its Barrios

Revisiting obscure barrio histories of the barrios of the Municipality of Mataasnakahoy.

An Old Tourist Spot in Taal Called the Pansipit Fishery

A throwback to a by-gone era, when tourists around Luzon visited this resort in Taal and Lemery.

The Hitchhiker who Gets on at the Zigzag in Cuenca Batangas Lipa

A tall tale familiar to all who drive through this curving road in Cuenca. Is it really a tall tale, though?

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28 December 2016

What was He Seeing before He Passed on? Chronicling my Brother’s Seeming Deathbed Visions

Image credit:  Sai Rapture.

That my older brother had cancer was discovered around Holy Week this year; and from the time of this unnerving discovery, although none of us was to know it at the time, he only had until the end of November to live. When he passed on, he was just over a month past the age of 60, something that he called a milestone that he was proud to have achieved.

13 December 2016

Snapshot of Life in the Province of Batangas Right after World War II

Image credit: US Department of Defense, Wikipedia.  Lipa after bombardment in WWII.

Before the onset of World War II in the Pacific in late 1941, Batangas was one of the most bustling provinces in the country in terms of commerce and industry. World War II and the Japanese occupation changed that. The invading army forced themselves into local households, seizing food and belongings.

11 December 2016

Non-Batangueño Ethnicities Living in Batangas: Bicolanos Highest

Ever wondered how many non-Batangueños actually live in Batangas? This is something that has always intrigued me given that I was born and raised inside Fernando Air Base in Lipa City, where the Batangueño ethnicity, at least at the time when I was growing up, was the decided minority.

08 December 2016

Philippine Football Federation receives 2nd Asian Football Confederation Grassroots Award

Photo Caption: Philippine Football Federation Mariano “Nonong” Araneta receives the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) President Recognition Award for Grassroots at the recently concluded AFC Awards 2016 from AFC Vice President Winston Lee Bon Aun.  (photo from AFC Awards) 

The Philippine Football Federation (PFF) was recently recognized for its achievements in football grassroots development when it received the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) President Recognition Award for Grassroots (Developing category) at the AFC Awards 2016 held in Abu Dhabi. Present to receive the trophy was PFF President Mariano “Nonong” Araneta. This is the second time that the PFF has received an AFC President Recognition Award for Grassroots. The first was in 2014.

02 December 2016

Google Earth Time Lapse Shows Growth of Batangas City, Lipa and Tanauan

This article shows how the three cities of the Province of Batangas, Batangas City, Lipa and Tanauan, have grown from 1984 to the present. Embedded below are sliders from Google Earth Engine, a platform that stores and organizes satellite data collected over the years.

27 November 2016

The Philippine Azkals: Rebuilding after the AFF Suzuki Cup

Image credit:  AFF Suzuki Cup official web site.

Before Sunday football yesterday, the first after the disappointing exit of the Philippine Azkals from the 2016 AFF Championships, inevitably I was asked what I thought of the national team’s performance in the tournament. This is a tricky one since I was not privy to the behind-the-scenes thinking among the team’s coaching staff.

26 November 2016

Personality Development Academy for Children Opens in Lipa City

Five year old Diosette Addison Cueto is taught the proper way of eating a cupcake by a royal maid during the Princess Academy at SM City Lipa.

It is probably every little girl’s dream to be a princess – wear a gown, a crown and have a tea party in a castle. This dream was made into a reality by SM Kids and SM Accessories as they opened the Princess Academy last November 14 at the Events Center of SM City Lipa.

24 November 2016

The Christmas Trivia Quiz

Image credit:  Jeff Weese on Flickr, "Nativity."

With Christmas just around the corner, this is a good time to test your knowledge your knowledge about the holiday season by taking this 12-question trivia quiz. This is a quiz dedicated to the Filipino audience, so if there are any foreigners who wander into this post, you may find some questions quite out of your range of experiences.

If you enjoyed this article, please click the Like button or share it freely on social media. It helps to pay this site's domain name and maintenance costs.

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23 November 2016

About Thailand: Moving on from the Indonesia Game in the 2016 AFF Suzuki Cup

Image credit:  AFF Suzuki Cup Official Site.

Something that one of the Fox Sports Asia commentators said whilst the Philippines-Indonesia was ongoing rather puts the Azkals’ performance in the 2016 AFF Suzuki Cup in the right perspective. “Considering how many of their players,” or something to this effect, he said, “are playing out of position, the Philippines have not done badly at all.”

20 November 2016

Travelling 7.5 Hours to Watch Singapore Park the Bus against the Philippine Azkals

The match had started by the time we sat ourselves inside the Philippine Sports Stadium.

Stuck in horrendous traffic as we were as we inched our way along that space-time continuum that is EDSA, I wondered out loud to my travelling party why the INC could not have found a property to build the Philippine Sports Stadium somewhere closer. Our trip from Lipa to Bocaue ultimately turned out to be a 7.5-hour ordeal, with just a few brief stops along the way to stretch our legs. As if to prove that time is, indeed, relative, our return trip in the dead of the night took exactly 3 hours.

16 November 2016

Eight Batangas-Themed Movies on IMDB

When one considers how colorful the history of Batangas has been, and how colorful life in the province continues to be up to the present day, it is a bit surprising to note that there has been a dearth of Batangas-themed movies made over the years. Perhaps this is a challenge to budding Batangas-born film-makers to do something to rectify the situation. At any rate, I did find eight movies on IMDB with direct Batangas themes. Of these, only the 1969 Hollywood B-Movie was internationally made.

15 November 2016

Lumbang, Lipa City Farmers' Association Gives Recognition to SM Foundation

SM Foundation Assistant Vice President for Livelihood Projects Christy Angeles (third from right) receives the certificate of appreciation from KuSa President Romy Morcilla (fourth from left) and Lipa City Mayor Meynard A. Sabili (third from left).  Representing SM City Lipa are Liza Dimaculangan, Mall Manager and Wendy Bautista, PR Manager.  With Mayor Sabili are (from left to right) ABC President Querubin Dimaano, City Administrator Atty. Leo Latido and Lipa Fire Marshall Von Nicasio. 

The farmers’ association of Brgy. Lumbang in Lipa City, Batangas, called Kumikitang Sakahan (KuSa), awarded a certificate of appreciation to SM Foundation last 14 November 2016. The award was given during the flag raising ceremony at the Lipa City Hall grounds.

08 November 2016

The Philippine Army Air Corps Class 42-C and Life in Fernando Air Base in the Baby Boomer Post-War Years

Taken during the Silver Anniversary of the PAAC Class 42-C.

Those who were born, raised or came to Fernando Air Base in Lipa City during the fifties and early sixties will recall that there was a definitive pioneering feel to being there in that particular era. The base itself, although it was built by the Americans before World War II and then used by the Japanese invaders during the war itself, was only turned over to the fledgling Philippine Air Force in 1948.

30 October 2016

The 2016 AFF Suzuki Cup in the Philippines, a Primer

Image credit:  AFF Suzuki Cup Official Site.

Buy your tickets here.

Whether you are a football aficionado or not, it may be well worth your while to make the trip to the Philippine Sports Stadium in Bulacan to watch Group A matches of the 2016 AFF Suzuki Cup. First of all, a visit to the ultra-modern Philippine Sports Stadium is an experience in itself. Second, it has been a while since the Philippines hosted an international football tournament of this caliber. Finally, the Philippine national team, a.k.a. the Azkals, is a contender and can naturally benefit from the support of a large and noisy home crowd.

27 October 2016

How Batangas was Liberated by Allied Forces from the Japanese in 1945

Image credit: US Department of Defense, Wikipedia.  Lipa after bombardment in WWII.

By early March in the year 1945, the liberation of the City of Manila by Allied Forces had been completed after a month of the heaviest urban fighting seen in the Pacific Theater during World War II. More than a thousand American military personnel were killed, while the Japanese fatalities totaled 16,665. Meanwhile, anything from 100,000 to 500,000 Filipino civilians were also either killed in the crossfire or massacred by the increasingly desperate Japanese.1

24 October 2016

Why the De La Salle Christian Brothers Came to the Philippines

Image credit:  De la Salle Philippines.

The year was 1904, two years after the end of the Philippine-American War. The Americans, having finally overcome armed resistance from the Filipinos, were quick to consolidate their foothold in these islands. Apart from laying down the foundation for a colonial government based on their own system, the Americans were also eager to enculturate the Filipinos into their own way of life.

22 October 2016

Batangas Bakeries Given Recognition on World Bread Day; Brillante Mendoza Workshop Successful

Panaderia authors Amy Uy and Jenny Orillos stand in front of National Bookstore’s booth during the Bread Fair. 

Five bakeries and bakeshops were given recognition through a one-day exhibit last October 16 at the Events Centre of SM City Lipa in time for the celebration of World Bread Day.

19 October 2016

Gregorio Zara: the Lipa, Batangas Born Inventor of the Videophone

Gregorio Y. Zara using a videophone.  Image credit:  from the Instagram account of the Philippine National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST).

The next time you use a videophone application on your mobile such as Skype or FaceTime, if you are from Batangas, it may serve you in good stead to know that the principles for modern day videotelephony technology were developed and patented by one of your own.

The DLSL Pictorial Quiz

This pictorial identification quiz is tailor-made for De La Salle Lipa alumni and alumnae who graduated from the school in the sixties up to the seventies. Even if you graduated later, however, the quiz is configured to give the correct answer every time your answer is incorrect. Therefore, the quiz is also a fun alternative way to learn a bit of historical trivia about the alma mater. You can even share your result using the comments section below. And don’t forget to share the quiz to your classmates and friends.

If you enjoyed this article, please click the Like button or share it freely on social media. It helps to pay this site's domain name and maintenance costs.

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16 October 2016

Getting Clarified on the Maliputo, the Talakitok and the Muslo

The maliputo.  Image from Joseph Razon.

Last month, a former colleague who was vacationing from Saudi Arabia and I visited this turo-turo (literally, you point at the food at the counter) restaurant in San Jose. At the counter, I quickly took a fancy towards what to me looked like kinamatisang (a soup soured with tomatoes) maliputo and told the lady behind the counter to give us an order.

13 October 2016

PFF Launches Registration and ID System for Players and Stakeholders

All images in this article fro Ake Pastoral of the Philippine Football Federation.

The Philippine Football Federation or PFF today formally launched an online registration system for football players and stakeholders. The system becomes available online on the fifteenth of November.

11 October 2016

Why Once There were no Chinese in Taal, Lemery and Bauan in Batangas

This is more or less common knowledge in Batangas; albeit, from my own personal experience, if you ask people, nobody would be able to give a definitive reason why. Not that this continues to be true in the municipality in the present day. An acquaintance who was born, raised and continues to live in Taal says that one or two enterprises are, indeed, owned by, at the very least, Filipinos of Chinese ancestry.

05 October 2016

Brillante Mendoza Workshop, Other Activities in SM City-Lipa Weekend of Fun and Learning

Award-winning Filipino director Brillante Mendoza (Ma Rosa, Thy Womb, etc.) launches a film appreciation workshop of his own movie “Taklub” at 5 o’clock in the afternoon of 14 October, a Friday, at SM City in Lipa City, Batangas. The workshop is one of several events being dubbed by SM City Lipa as a “Weekend of Fun and Learning.”

04 October 2016

Spanish Governance and Christian Instruction in Batangas in 1591

Previous Chapter

(Chapter XIII of a Batangas Historical Series)

A new decade of Spanish rule in the Philippines brought with it changes with which the Spaniards administered the islands. The Royal Audiencia, which in 1583 Felipe II had decreed formed in the country, ultimately turned out not quite the solution to the country’s troubles as was hoped. Hearing first-hand from the Jesuit priest Alonso Sanchez, head of an embassy sent from the Philippines to Spain, of not only the real conditions in the islands but also about the constant bickering among the members of the Audiencia, the king replaced the body with a governor direct from Spain.

30 September 2016

Quiz: How Well Do You Know Batangas?

How well do you know the Province of Batangas? Take this 20-question quiz and find out!

The DLSL High School Teacher Quiz

This quiz is targeted at graduates of the De La Salle Lipa High School in the eighties and nineties, but those from the decades before and after these can still probably score well with an intelligent guess here and there. So how well do you know teachers of DLSL? Take the quiz and find out!

The DLSL Trivia Quiz

How well do you know De La Salle Lipa? Test your knowledge by taking this 20-question quiz:

If you enjoyed this article, please click the Like button or share it freely on social media. It helps to pay this site's domain name and maintenance costs.

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27 September 2016

When a Cop Was Accidentally Shot during a Gary V Concert at the SENTRUM

Gary Valenciano in concert at the SENTRUM.

Back in the mid-nineties, for DLSL to undertake an ambitious campus development project under then-President Brother Rafael Donato, it had to undertake a hundred million and a half bank loan as funding. It was a long-term loan that the school would be paying until the end of the first decade of the millennium, and well worth taking as everyone in the present day can see.

22 September 2016

1903 Batangas Seen through the Eyes of an American Colonial Officer’s Wife

Nipa huts in a reconcentrado camp.  Image credit:  "The Last Holdouts".

A series of letters written by Edith Moses about the Philippines provides a colorful insight into life in the country at the turn of the previous century. These letters were subsequently published into a book entitled “Unofficial Letters of an Official’s Wife” in New York in 1908.

20 September 2016

The Mysterious Our Lady of Caysasay Story as told in Old Tagalog by the 18th Century Agustinian Friar Francisco Buencuchillo

Juan Maningca fishing the image from the river as depicted by a fresco at the Our Lady of Caysasay Shrine.  Image credit:  By Eric Jam - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, 

The story of the Our Lady of Caysasay, or the Nuestra Señora de Caysasay as she used to be known during the Spanish colonial era in the Philippines, may not necessarily fall under the category “stock knowledge” even for many Batangueños, and especially those who do not live anywhere close to the Municipality of Taal, where the village of Caysasay is located. I, for one, heard of the academy named after her first; and for the longest time only had the vaguest notion about her story.

17 September 2016

The Year when the Top and Second of the CPA Board Exams were from DLSL

Monday, the 19th of October in the year 2009, was supposed to be another mundane day at the administrative suite of offices at the second floor of the Diokno Building at De La Salle Lipa. I was then Vice-Chancellor for Administration, and because it was the first day of the week, there typically sat on my desk a pile of documents tall as a man waiting to be perused or signed.

14 September 2016

To Duterte’s Mention of the Bud Dajo and Balangiga Massacres, Add the Batangas Concentration Camps of the Phil-American War

Image credit: Pinoy Culture.  Inside a concentration camp in Batangas.

Now that Philippine President, Rodrigo Duterte, has dug up from history and brought back into public consciousness the massacres at Bud Dajo in Sulu and Balangiga in Samar, both events having occurred during the Philippine-American War from 1899-1902, perhaps it is but appropriate to revisit as well the concentration camps which the Americans set up in Batangas starting December 19011.

10 September 2016

Thomas Cavendish: the 16th Century English Pirate who Prowled Philippine Waters

Image credit:  Wikimedia Commons; Pauline's Pirates and Privateers.

Many will recall from World History lessons the abortive sixteenth century invasion of England by the so-called Spanish Armada, so ordered by Philip II, King of Spain. The invasion force was sent partly as retribution for the execution of the Catholic English Queen Mary I (Stuart), whom the Spaniards, being a dutiful Catholic nation, felt was the rightful Queen of England. But apart from wanting to restore a Catholic to the throne of England, the Spaniards also intended the destruction of the English navy so that its pesky raids of Spanish ports, including those in the colonies, might come to an end1.

09 September 2016

Provincia de Bombon y Balayan, as 16th Century Batangas was Known

Image credit:  The Inhabitants of the Philippines, Frederic H. Sawyer.

Previous Chapter

(Chapter XII of a Batangas Historical Series)

The Royal Audiencia established in Manila was supposed to allow the governance of the Philippines without having to refer major concerns to the Audiencia in Nueva España and also to rein in the powers of the Governor General and prevent the corruption and abuses that used to occur during Gonçalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa’s term as Governor.

06 September 2016

Insights from the Philippine Azkals Friendly Win Away to Kyrgyzstan

Image credit:  The Azkals Facebook Page.

I only saw the second half of the Philippines Azkals’ friendly away to Kyrgyzstan last night in Bishkek, streamed live seemingly by a private individual rather than a television network. There was, therefore, neither commentary nor replays. This and the fact that I missed the entire first half makes it difficult to write a credible match analysis.

31 August 2016

SM Foundation Hosts Graduation of Tanauan Farmers who Underwent Kabalikat sa Kabuhayan Training

The KSK training graduates.

A total of 102 farmers, most of whom are from the City of Tanauan, graduated from the 3-month farming training at SM City Lipa last 31 August 2016. The training, dubbed as “Kabalikat sa Kabuhayan” (KSK) is spearheaded by SM Foundation and is conducted in partnership with Harbest Agribusiness Corporation, the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Social Welfare and Development.

30 August 2016

Some Very Telling Statistics on the Differences between Filipino Men and Women

A fact sheet on women and men in the Philippines offers some very interesting statistical differences between the genders in this country. The fact sheet was released last March 2016 by the Philippine Statistical Authority. The statistics in this sheet are comprehensive, but this article will only focus on certain areas which ought to be of interest to a wider audience.

24 August 2016

Early 20th Century Postcards Show Nostalgic Images of Old Manila

Dewey Boulevard, Manila (presently Roxas Boulevard).

An obscure collection of postcards simply called the “Rudyuski Collection” sits among the digital collections at the National Library of the Philippines. Regrettably, no details are given as to the owner of the collection or how the postcards were accumulated. The subjects of the postcards are diverse, with images not only of Metro Manila but of indigenous tribes and different provinces of the country. This post shows only postcards of Manila subjects.

Shopping Tips for SM City Lipa's 3-Day Sale This September

In line with its coming three-day sale scheduled on 2-4 September 2016, SM City Lipa has released a set of tips for shoppers who may be planning to take advantage of the mall's upcoming event. Here are the tips sent to Life So Mundane by way of a Press Release by SM City Lipa:

22 August 2016

The Practice of Sending Convicted Criminals as Soldiers to Spanish Colonial Philippines

Image credit:

“While this ship was on the point of departure, one of two ships which your viceroy Don Martin Enrriquez1 despatched from Nueva España (Mexico) arrived here, on the fifth of the present month. Through these ships he sends one hundred and fifty soldiers, some married men, and three Augustinian religious.2

17 August 2016

Improved Traffic Management in Lipa; but Foresight Also Needed for the Future

I have complained about the adverse traffic situation in Lipa City before, and now that it has perceptibly improved, I believe that it is merely fair to write about the improvements as well. I still see the occasional bitching about traffic on social media, so before anyone can consider trolling this article, let me immediately set its context.

15 August 2016

Gabriel de Ribera, Mariscal de Bombon, Batangas’ Representative to the Royal Audiencia

Image credit:

Previous Chapter

(Chapter XI of a Batangas Historical Series)

Gonçalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa’s term as Governor of the Philippines would be cut short by his death in 15831. He was in poor health from the day he assumed office, according to the historian Antonio de Morga. His demise, it is fair to assume, was probably hastened by the stresses brought on by criticisms that his administration drew not just from his political rivals but also from the members of the clergy.

10 August 2016

Batangas Port, Fernando Air Base Expansion, Batangas-Calamba Rail Proposed

Image credit:  Google Street View.

A TV Patrol Southern Tagalog item on its 9 August 2016 show reported that talks have started between Department of Transportation and Communications Secretary Arthur Tugade and Batangas Governor Hermilando Mandanas regarding the construction of Phase 3 and 4 of the Batangas City Port, as suggested by the Japan International Cooperation Agency.

05 August 2016

2016 Competitiveness Rankings: San Juan, Bauan Stay Top Towns in Batangas; Lemery 3rd; Rosario, Nasugbu Enter Top 5

Image credit:  Google Street View.

The municipalities of San Juan and Bauan stayed first and second in the Province of Batangas as per the 2016 edition of the Nationwide Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index, the results of which were released by the National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines last month. The competitiveness index is an annual undertaking of the council in coordination with the Regional Competitiveness Committees and with assistance rendered by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

03 August 2016

Spanish-Style Corruption Arrives in 16th Century Philippines, Including Batangas

Image credit: Putok Do You Know the Truth?

Previous Chapter

(Chapter X of a Batangas Historical Series)

After Miguel de Loarca’s pseudo-census of the Philippine Islands, Spanish documents for all intents and purposes went silent in the 1580s on anything that had to do with what would over time become the Province of Batangas. This was likely by no means deliberate and more due to politicking between the Spaniards themselves, often to the detriment of the native Filipinos or the Indians as these were referred to by the conquerors.

02 August 2016

50 Forgotten Tagalog Bugtongs (Riddles)

Image credit:

It used to be, when I was young, that we used to amuse ourselves by asking each other riddles or mga bugtong, as these were called in Tagalog. These riddles were witty and sometimes downright irreverent; and, of course, these had to be phrased so that they had rhymes. Most of the riddles were traditional; i.e. we heard them from others and it was a simple matter of repeating them and still drawing laughs, depending on how you told them. There were those, however, who were inventive and could create their own.

31 July 2016

Taal: Extolling the Virtues of the Neighbourhood Heritage Town (Video Log Embedded)

Taal seen from the tower of the St. Martin de Tours Basilica.

Vigan or Taal? I had a bit of a discussion about this with my former student and colleague Albert Gamatero over the weekend when I took him up on an invitation to take me on a walking tour of his hometown, Taal. Not that the question is of national significance; and ideally, if one has the time and can afford it, both heritage towns are excellent travel destinations.

28 July 2016

Tanauan, Batangas City Improve in 2016 National Competitiveness Ranking; Lipa Drops 22 Places

Image credit:  Google Street View.

The Province of Batangas’ three cities had mixed fortunes even as the province itself soared from 20th to 9th among 74 provinces in the 2016 Annual National Competitiveness Index. The calculation of the index is an undertaking by the National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines in coordination with Regional Competitiveness Committees and USAID. The 2016 results were released last 14 July 2016.

24 July 2016

Searching for Nasugbu’s Lost Airfield

The Philippine Air Force L-5.  Image credit:  PAF Official site.

When I was a small boy back in the sixties, I had been hearing from my Mother, who was originally from the town of Nasugbu in western Batangas, and other relations on the maternal side about this place that they referred to as ‘landing.’ I knew, because I grew up in an Air Force base, that the term probably referred to a place where airplanes flew from or landed.

20 July 2016

Miguel de Loarca’s 16th Century “Census” of Batangas

The Bombon area was the most vibrant according to de Loarca's narrative.

Previous Chapter

(Chapter IX of a Batangas Historical Series)

Mention has already been made in the second chapter of the Spaniard Miguel de Loarca as this narrative sought to get a bearing on the coastline of Tulay or Tuley. For this chapter, we return to his relation or narrative to get a better grasp of how things were in Batangas in the first decade of Spanish colonisation in terms of population and governance.

19 July 2016

The Galleon Trade, Their Filipino Crews and the Earliest Filipino Community in the United States

Thumbnail from the YouTube video "El Galeón de Manila. La aventura de los tesoros de Oriente (Manila Galleon) HRM Ediciones" by Arturo Sanchez.

Most Filipinos, from high school history books, ought to have a fundamental knowledge of the so-called Galleon Trade, that maritime link across the vast expanse of the Pacific through which the Philippines maintained its contact with Nueva España (Mexico) and, therefore, the mother country Spain itself.

13 July 2016

The Chiefs of Balayan and Their Role in the 16th Century Spanish Invasion of Borneo

Image credit:

Previous Chapter

(Chapter VIII of a Batangas Historical Series)

It was no surprise that Spanish overtures of peace and friendship with the King of Borney in 1573 were received lukewarmly; and even this is an understatement. The Spaniards, after all, were encroaching upon lands where Borney, if it did not have direct sovereignty, at least wielded apparent influence.

11 July 2016

How Batangas Compares with other CALABARZON Provinces in Crime Incidence in 2016

Image credit:

This article examines the crime incidence in the CALABARZON Region, with particular interest on Batangas, of which this web site is about. The data used for this article has been taken from the statistics made available online by the Regional Office of the Philippine National Police (PRO-CALABARZON).

07 July 2016

When Islam was a Widely-Practised Religion in Luzon, Including Batangas

Image credit:  The Daily Brunei Resources.

Previous Chapter

(Part VII of a Batangas Historical Series)

Documents of the earliest Hispanic contacts with Batangas referred to the natives of Bonbon and Balayan as Moros – Spanish for Moors. This was altogether incorrect because the term Moor was originally used to connote the Muslim inhabitants of North Africa and parts of Europe, particularly those of the Iberian Peninsula, regardless of ethnicity.

04 July 2016

Rankings of Batangas Towns in Terms of Economic Dynamism, Government Efficiency and Infrastructure

Images compiled from Google Earth.

This is the follow-up article to the profiling of Batangas’ three cities. This time, I present to all readers a profiling of twenty-two municipalities of the province in terms of competitiveness. The information in this article comes from data collected for the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index, an annual ranking made by the National Competitiveness Council through its regional arms.